SURVEY ON 1930s AND 1940s

Questionnaire results
publié le 18/11/2008,
par  Jana KUNCIC

A survey of the 1940s in Slovenia focusing on teenage life, carried out by a group of students from 8th and 9th grade of Primary School Anton Tomaž Linhart Radovljica.

The students selected for this work are year eight and year nine students at Primary School Anton Tomaž Linhart in Radovljica. The group consists of 8 boys and 14 girls at the age of 13-15. The pupils worked in pairs and carried out 22 interviews. The people they interviewed are all between 70 and 88 years old and the interviews were carried out in the homes of the interviewees and the retired people’s home.

SCHOOL

1 Which school subjects did you study at school ?
Katere predmete ste se učili v šoli ?

The most frequently mentioned subjects : Algebra, Geography, Music, Slovene, History, Art (drawing), Sports

The interesting points are foreign languages. They learnt Serbo-Croation (10), German (7), French (1), Russian (4)

The other subjects : Neat handwriting, Handy work, Religious education, Science, Manners, Hygiene, Craft, Geometry, Materials.

2 Did you learn about foreign countries ? Which ones ?
Ste se učili o tujih deželah ? O katerih ?

15 people learnt about foreign countries, 7 people didn’t. The oldest interviewees didn’t.
They learnt mostly about European countries, Russia, one learnt also about the USA.

3 What were the lessons like ? (school objects, teaching methods, school trips)
Kakšne so bile ure ? (šolski predmeti, metode učenja, šolski izleti)

They went to school 6 days a week (including Saturday). 3 of the interviewees had all the lessons in German (during the German occupation in the World War 2). They had 4 – 6 lessons a day. There were some daily schools outings (picking up the forest fruits, to Brezje (place of pilgrimage), to Planica (ski jumping events), to Tamar (walks).

School objects : a small wooden board and a chalk (they had their own), a pencil, a fountain pen and ink, crayons, notebooks, rulers, school books, a wooden pencil case, a schoolbag, carving tools.

4 Did you use any foreign words in daily conversation ? (Which ones ?)
Ali ste uporabljali kakšne tuje besede v vsakdanjem pogovoru ? (Katere ?)
Many foreign words were used in daily conversation, not in the original form, but changed a
little bit to correspond to the Slovene language. The words originated in German and Italian,
because of the vicinity of Italian and German border. People in Primorska used more Italian
words because of Italian government, and people in Gorenjska used more German words.

šefla zajemalka a ladle
šporget štedilnik a cooker
špajza shramba a store room
montl plašč a coat
štumfi nogavice socks
fertah predpasnik an apron
kevder klet a cellar

DAILY LIFE

1 What kind of clothes did you wear ? Did you wear any accessories ?
Kakšne vrste oblačil ste nosili ? Ali ste nosili kakšne modne dodatke ?

In school they were wearing a black overall with white collar. Usually they had two sets of clothes, one for during the week and one for Sunday service. They wore some ribbons, bracelets, earrings and necklaces (but very rarely). Clothes were made at home from home materials. Children wore clothes from their older brothers and sisters.

2 Which money (currency) did you use at the time ?
Kakšno denarno enoto ste uporabljali včasih ?

Different currencies depending on the political system were used in our country :
In Yugoslavia – dinar
German occupation – mark
Littoral – Italian lira
during German occupation, but in the liberated territories – Partisan lira

3 How did you spend your holidays and festivals ? (Did you give and get any presents ?)
Kako ste preživljali počitnice in praznike ? (Ste dali in dobili kakšno darilo ?)

They celebrated at home. Mostly they weren’t given any presents, or they got apples and carob beans, only rarely some pieces of clothing. They celebrated the name-days, not birthdays.

4 What did you usually eat ?
Kaj ste ponavadi jedli ?

They ate what they grew at home.

porridge, pot barley, turnip, cabbage, sauerkraut, potatoes, milk, maize porridge, hasty pudding,
žganci (corn flour or buckwheat flour)
meat and sausages at festivals, usually 3 times a year.

FOREIGN FOOD AND BEVERAGES

1 Did you know of any foreign food ? Which one ?
Ste kdaj jedli kakšno tujo hrano ? Katero ?

Most interviewee didn’t come across any foreign food. Some of them knew Turkish honey, šamrola, Wiener schnitzel

2 Did you know of any foreign drinks ?
Ali ste poznali kakšno tujo pijačo ?

None.

LEISURE

1 What did you do in your free time ? (entertainment and work)
Kaj ste počeli v prostem času ? (zabava in delo)

In their free time they usually worked on the fields, did some housework, played some simple games, played the musical instruments, went skiing (they used homemade wooden skis) and they went swimming (rivers).

2 Which games did you play ?
Katere igre ste igrali ?

They played different games such as Skrivalnice (hide and seek), Človek ne jezi se (Man, don’t get angry), Zemljo krast (Steal some area), domino (dominoes), med dvema ognjema (Between two fires), trden most (Solid bridge), frnikolanje (Marbles) , risantanc, karte (Cards) and some others.

3 Did you travel at all ? (If yes, was it just Slovenia, Europe or beyond ?)
Ali ste potovali ?(Če ja, ali samo po Sloveniji, Evropi ali še kje drugje ?)

Most of the interviewees didn’t leave their home country at all. 4 of them went to Germany.

4 Did you ever go on a trip with your family ?
Ali ste kdaj šli na potovanje s svojimi starši ?

10 interviewees never went on a trip with their families, the others very rarely and not far away from their homes (because they mostly had to walk, used bicycles, only rarely they travelled by trains)

CULTURE

1 What kind of music did you listen to ?
Kakšno zvrst muzike ste poslušali ?

Half didn’t listen to any kind of music. Those that did, they listened to choirs singing folk songs. Only one person mentioned gramophone. They told there were no radios available at that time.

2 Did you read any books by foreign authors ?
Ste prebrali kakšno knjigo tujega avtorja ?

Most of them no, the only foreign authors mentioned were Karl May, Walter Scott, Alexander Dumas, but they read the translations, not the originals.

3 Did you go to the cinema or theatre ? (Were foreign films subtitled ?)
Ste hodili v kino ali gledališče ? (So bili tuji filmi s podnapisi ?)

Now and then some interviewees went to the cinema, 2 people mentioned the films were in German, without the subtitles. They went to see some plays performed by local people – amateurs. 1 person went to opera.

SPORTS

1 What sports did you practise ?
S katerimi športi ste se ukvarjali ?

They practiced cross-country skiing, they went swimming, did gymnastics, athletics, went skiing, cycling, sledding, jogging, playing volleyball, table tennis and handball.

8 people didn’t practise any sports.

2 Did you ever participate in sports competitions abroad ? (Did our sportsmen participate in international competitions ?)
Ali ste sodelovali pri športnih tekmovanjih ? (Ali so naši športniki sodelovali na mednarodnih tekmovanjih ?)

None of the interviewees participated in sports competitions abroad, but they mentioned there were Slovene sportsmen who were participating in international competitions. (football players).

MEDIA

1 Did you have any newspapers and magazines ? Which ones ?
Ste imeli kaj časopisev ali revij ? Katerih ?

There were many different newspapers and magazine that they read : Bogoljub, Domoljub, Proteus, Sokolič, Pavliha, Komunist, Slovenec, Slovenski dom Karavanken Botte, Naš rod, Jadranska straža, Vigred, Toti list, Ljudska pravica, Poročevalec, Tovariš, Angelček. Some of them were religious, and many of them, for example Bogoljub, Domoljub, Komunist, Slovenski dom … patriotic.

2 How did the information spread among people ?
Kako so se vesti širile med ljudmi ?

22 interviewees mentioned the information spread verbally (verbal communication). They also said newspapers, pamphlets and some leaflets were used to spread the information among people.
In one case mails (letters), a telephone and a radio were mentioned as the interviewee’s father was a local doctor.


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